By Malcolm Offord
A scholar Grammar of French is a concise advent to French grammar, designed particularly for English-speaking undergraduates. preserving technical element to a minimal, it explains the basics of the grammar in obtainable and easy phrases, and is helping scholars to place their studying into perform via a number of enjoyable and interesting routines. all of the crucial themes are lined, with chapters on verbs, nouns, adjectives, pronouns, determiners, prepositions, adverbs, negation, numerals, sentences, and clauses. each grammatical element is illustrated with a number of genuine examples drawn from magazines and newspapers, overlaying many parts of latest existence reminiscent of style, healthiness concerns, relationships and activity. it really is truly prepared right into a basic, numbered indexing process, permitting the learner to speedy and simply find any grammatical subject. Functioning either as an necessary reference consultant and a complete workbook, this grammar turns into the precise accompaniment to any first or moment 12 months undergraduate path.
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Extra resources for A Student Grammar of French
A major distinction is to be made between those verbs which add –iss– between the stem and the ending in certain tenses and persons – subgroup 1 – and those which do not – subgroup 2 – subgroup 1 finir = to finish – nous finissons jouir = to enjoy – je jouissais subgroup 2 – courir = to run – je courais partir = to leave – nous partons Group 3 –re verbs and Group 4 –oir verbs The verbs in these groups often form small subgroups, but there are also a number of verbs which are complete one-offs, especially in Group 4.
Usage As will be explained in 135, 138, the future tense refers to events that have yet to take place, the conditional to ‘the future in the past’ and to express doubt or probability. 46 Endings of future and conditional tenses In the majority of cases, forming the future and conditional tenses is a relatively simple matter. For all Group 1 –er verbs (except aller and envoyer – see 49), the following endings are added to the stem. However, the stem undergoes variation in a few cases – see 48. Future tense singular plural –erai –erons –eras –erez –era –eront Conditional tense singular plural –erais –erions –erais –eriez –erait –eraient For all Group 2 –ir verbs (except cueillir – see 51), the following endings are added to the stem – Future tense singular –irai –iras –ira plural –irons –irez –iront Conditional tense singular plural –irais –irions –irais –iriez –irait –iraient For Group 3 –re verbs, the following endings are added to the stem.
It is normally formed by taking the first person singular form of the past historic tense, deleting the last letter and adding the appropriate endings. Obtaining the stem – portai → porta–, finis → fini–, courus → couru–, vendis → vendi–, rec¸us → rec¸u– The endings are singular plural –sse –ssions –sses –ssiez –ˆt –ssent Note that for the third person singular a circumflex accent is added to the vowel of the stem. 100 Examples of the imperfect subjunctive Group 1 porter ˆ nous portassions, vous portassiez, je portasse, tu portasses, il/elle portat, ils/elles portassent aller ˆ nous allassions, vous allassiez, j’allasse, tu allasses, il/elle/on allat, ils/elles allassent Group 2 finir je finisse, tu finisses, il/elle/on finˆıt, nous finissions, vous finissiez, ils/elles finissent courir ˆ nous courussions, vous je courusse, tu courusses, il/elle/on courut, courussiez, ils/elles courussent 41 A STUDENT GUIDE TO FRENCH GRAMMAR Group 3 vendre je vendisse, tu vendisses, il/elle/on vendˆıt, nous vendissions, vous vendissiez, ils/elles vendissent eˆ tre ˆ nous fussions, vous fussiez, ils/elles je fusse, tu fusses, il/elle/on fut, fussent Group 4 recevoir ˆ nous rec¸ussions, vous rec¸ussiez, je rec¸usse, tu rec¸usses, il/elle/on rec¸ut, ils/elles rec¸ussent avoir ˆ nous eussions, vous eussiez, ils/elles j’eusse, tu eusses, il/elle/on eut, eussent pouvoir ˆ nous pussions, vous pussiez, ils/elles je pusse, tu pusses, il/elle/on put, pussent Perfect and pluperfect subjunctive tenses 101 Formation The perfect subjunctive is formed by combining the present subjunctive of the auxiliary verbs avoir or eˆ tre with the past participle of the verb, and the pluperfect subjunctive similarly by combining the imperfect subjunctive of the auxiliary verbs avoir or eˆ tre with the past participle of the verb.