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By James Crawford

Bilingualism is a truth that many americans nonetheless locate tough to simply accept; consequently the prominence of English-only activism in U.S. politics. This number of essays analyzes the resources of the anti-bilingual move, its altering instructions, and its impression on schooling coverage. The publication additionally explores efforts to withstand the English-only development, together with initiatives to revitalize local American languages.

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Yñiguez v. Arizonans for Official English, 1995: 923) Article 28 violated the First Amendment, the judges ruled, because it not only blocked the free expression of state employees, but also impeded the free flow of state services to limited-English-speakers. They rejected suggestions that the amendment merely sought to regulate expressive conduct – the choice of a medium to articulate ideas – rather than the content of speech itself: [A] monolingual person does not have the luxury of making the expressive choice to communicate in one language or another.

Of course, it was difficult to quantify the assistance federal agencies provided to limited-English-speakers on 40 At War With Diversity an as-needed basis. But where was the evidence that such accommodations were preventing anyone from learning English, or that their elimination would have the opposite effect? Suspecting a lavish expenditure of federal dollars, the chief Senate sponsor of Official English, Richard Shelby of Alabama, commissioned a study to determine the amount of materials being published in nonEnglish languages.

The latter included foundations dedicated to promoting eugenics, limiting the reproduction of Third World peoples, distributing white supremacist tracts, and sponsoring research purporting to prove the inferiority of non-whites (Crawford, 1992a). In the aftermath, English-only advocates not surprisingly found their message to be a harder sell with legislators and editorial writers. While many conservatives continued to support Official English, dismissing the charge of racism, it became difficult for moderates and liberals to do so.

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